The Cynon Valley in Prehistory: The Mesolithic

The Cynon Valley in Prehistory

The prehistory of the Cynon Valley remains a distant image, its past obscured. Through archaeological investigations we have begun to learn more about the valley’s prehistoric past.  This series of archaeology articles will take a look at our valleys distant past looking at material held in the Cynon Valley Museum and by National Museum Wales who recently shared a series of tweets showcasing the archaeology of the Cynon Valley.


The Mesolithic

Ten thousand years ago the Cynon Valley would have looked very different from how it looks today, dominated by a mixture of pine woodland and treeless landscapes. As Britain emerges from the last Ice Age the climate is growing warmer. The valley over this period of time would have become heavily forested. It was becoming a landscape of deciduous trees such as oak, birch, elm, lime and hazel. Species like red deer, roe deer and wild pigs roam across this forested landscape, people are few and far between. Throughout this time although few, people adapted to this changing landscape.

The Cynon Valley sits in an area of important Mesolithic archaeology which focuses on the Rhondda Uplands. The area contains a significant number of flint tool assemblages suggesting people were regularly visiting the area.  One of the most notable sites being Craig Y Llyn which retains evidence of both tools for hunting and for the processing of successful hunts.


Cefn Rhos Gwair

In the Cynon Valley we see evidence of people, at Cefn Rhos Gwair, a small collection of late Mesolithic flints thought to date to 7500-4000BC were found by a forester whilst planting trees on the hillside. These flints pieces were thought to have been left behind from the manufacturing of a flint spear. You can find out more about this discovery and more by discoveries made by the same forester here.

Selection of flint objects discovered at Cefn Rhos Gwair, described in the body of the text.

A group of later mesolithic flints found at Cefn Rhos Gwair. Dated 7500 – 4000BC By permission of Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales

In this small collection of flints from Cefn Rhos Gwair there remains the core of the flint which the spear would had been knapped from, material removed as the spear was manufactured and a single small piece of flint known as a microlith. This small microlith along with a number of other microliths would had formed one spear. This was a typical feature of Mesolithic stone tools, with stone tools reducing in size and frequently being combined to form tools such as spears and harpoons.

Life in the Mesolithic would have relied on natural resources around them. Farming had not reached Wales, the only known domestic animal at the time was the dog. Peoples lives would have varied greatly, a hunter and gather lifestyle varied season to season and region to region. Some people may have lived in small highly mobile groups, others where resources allowed would have lived in semi-permanent sites. Currently there is little evidence in the Cynon Valley for settlement. Sites such as Cefn Rhos Gwair show people were here and they would had spent time here too as they moved through the valley.

As we move towards 4000BC the world is changing, across in mainland Europe. A new way of life has emerged and is becoming dominant, farming had arrived. Sooner or later it would make the jump across from mainland Europe, life would never be the same again….


Further Reading

Amgueddfa Cymru National Museum Wales, The Flint Finder of Wales

Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust, The Rhondda Main,

Lillie M, Hunters, Fishers and Foragers in Wales, Oxbow Books, Oxford



For more Stories from the Collection Click Here

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