A Neolithic Axe from Mynydd Bwlfa

The Cynon Valley Museum’s collection stretches back to the Neolithic (4100BC – 2500BC) when farming had recently been introduced to Wales and technology to manufacture metal tools remained undiscovered. In this time, people lived in small permanent and semi-permanent groups and relied on tools made from stone, bone and wood. In the Cynon Valley, we see evidence of these people. Past archaeological investigations have found flint scrapers and arrow heads in Cwmbach and Aberaman. From hunting deer to cutting meat and preparing pelts, these tools were part of everyday life. But there was one tool above all, more sought after than any other, the axe. Throughout early human history, axes had been part of everyday life. In the Neolithic their importance grew, used to clear woodland, cut wood for fires, and butchering the axe was an essential tool.

ACVMS: 2019.114

A handaxe from Hirwaun

In 2014 a Neolithic stone axehead was discovered ahead of the construction of Mynydd Bwlfa Wind Farm, at Hirwaun. This polished green stone axe was found in spoil from past mining activity. Sadly, as a result of this we know little about how, where or why it was originally deposited. We do know it is likely to have been manufactured between 6000 and 5,100 years ago, at the very start of the Neolithic period in Wales. The axe is formed of green serpentine, a stone with no known local sources. Its appearance and internal weakness suggests it spent time crashing against other stones, and was likely to have been originally found on a shore edge. These weaknesses help explain how the axe was manufactured. Most axes would have been knapped into shape (the process of hitting the stone to create a desired shape and blade). The weaknesses of this stone would have made this impossible. It was likely ground down into the desired axe shape, creating the unique appearance seen today, with the scars from underwater collisions still apparent.

View from the dig site.

The Significance of the Axe

From the beginning the of the Neolithic the axe was more than just a simple tool, attempting to understand their importance has seen decades of work by archaeologists from across the world. In Britain some of the earliest Neolithic axes found originated in the Alps. These alpine axes are distinctly green, just like our own axe, but differ by being made from a different stone: jadeitite. It is thought they were manufactured in the middle of the 5th millennium BC, hundreds of years before they would arrive in the UK.

Over the intervening years these axes would have been passed down, generation to generation, building up their ancestral connections and a body of myths and stories to accompany them. Just like a family heirloom today, bringing us closer to long lost family members. By the time they reached Britain they would have already been around 500 years old, instilled with the legacy of past owners, these stone axes were more than just tools, they came to represent a different way of life to the hunter gather lifestyle that had already been swept away from much of Europe.

ACVMS: 2019.114

As this new way of life spread across Britain, the supply of Alpine axe head disappears. The desire for green axes however did not. New local sources were found amongst the igneous rocks of Britain and Ireland’s most remote locations. Sources in Ireland, Wales, Cornwall and the Lake District were found and quarried. The source of our axehead remains unknown. Serpentine is relatively scarce in the UK, with no known local sources in South Wales, the closest being the Lizard peninsular, Cornwall. Further scientific analysis may help identify if this stone is Cornish, but at this time we cannot say. The nature of our stone likely found close to the shoreline gives us a further multitude of plausible origin stories, from being found in a Cornish river to being washed ashore somewhere along Britain’s coastline. We are not likely to ever know how this axe reached the Cynon valley.

From its discovery, likely by chance, someone saw its potential. They invested time and energy into its creation. They would have been aware of its weaknesses choosing to wear it down into shape rather than knap it. These weaknesses would have made the axe less effective as a tool, but still they chose to work it to the form we see today. This axe appears to be more than just a tool. It may had over time become an possession of significance, something that linked its owner to the past and the stories which were passed down generation to generation.

This axe, discovered in the Cynon valley it is part of a much wider narrative: the story of the first farmers in Wales. We will likely never know where it was originally deposited or why, it may have been simply lost or there may be a more complex story behind it. For example, it is known from other sites in the UK that stone axes were placed as “offerings” and involved in religious activity.

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Today all we have left of the Neolithic in the Cynon valley are the remnants of stone tools, they were essential to everyday life. Some such as the axe would grow in meaning and become much more than just a tool. Just as this axe today links us to the ancestors of the Cynon valley, this axe linked Neolithic people to those who had gone before them.


William Tregaskes, Cynon Valley Museum Trust 


Further Reading

Miles D, 2016, The Tale of the Axe: How the Neolithic Revolution Transformed Britain, Thames and Hudson, London and New York

Pannett P, 2014, Lithic Artefact, in, Poucher P, 2014, Mynydd Bwllfa Wind Farm, Hirwaun, Rhondda Cynon Taf: Watching Brief, Archaeology Wales, Llanidloes

Whittle A, 2009, The Neolithic, c. 4000-2400 cal BC: A Changing World, in, Hunter J and Ralston I, 2009 (2nd ed), The Archaeology of Britain: An Introduction from the Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Routledge, London and New York


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Showing 4 comments
  • Tony Lawrence

    Just recently BBC Radio 4 has been repeating the fifteen minute episodes of ” The History of the World in 100 objects”, introduced by Neil Mcgregor, former director of the British Museum.
    Two programmes featured the axe, what Mcgregor described as an ancient “Swiss Army Knife”.
    If I remember correctly the first axe was 14,000 years old but the other, 6000 years old was fashioned of a jade like material and was probably a prized ornament. It was still sharp and had not been used as a tool.
    If you already know of the R4 programme I apologise but the series is still running and past episodes are available on BBC Sounds.

  • Angela Dobb

    Tony Lawrence beat me to it! They were able to trace those axes geochemically back to the exact mine & boulder in the Dolomites. As mentioned there are Serpentinites in Cornwall & also on Holy Island, Anglesey. According to legend Napoleon Bonaparte had a tabletop made of the this Serpentinite.

pingbacks / trackbacks
  • […] You can read more about the history of this item on this blog post. […]

  • […] In 2014 a Neolithic stone axehead was discovered ahead of the construction of Mynydd Bwlfa Wind Farm. It is thought to be between 6000 and 5100 years old. There are no known local sources of serpentine and combined with its appearance and internal weaknesses suggests it was found on the shore edge many miles away from the Cynon Valley. These weaknesses would have meant the axe was likely never used as an axe and remain purely valued for the stone it was made from and its value to connect different generations. We will likely never know where it was originally deposited or why, it may have been simply lost or there may be a more complex story behind it. For example, it is known from other sites in the UK that stone axes were placed as “offerings” and involved in religious activity, (read more about the Serpentine handaxe here) […]

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